07-09
16

Hard Disk's Glossary of Computer Terminology (2)

Fine Melancholy

AuthorKathenie   Category Basic Computing Guide   Comments0   Post Time 2007-09-16 23:55:07 -0400

C
Cable Select (CSEL)
An alternative option which can be used in place of setting Master/Slave jumpers in the designation of drives in a dual drive configuration. Master/Slave designation is based on the position of the drives relative to the cable. Special cabling is required by the system manufacturer to selectively ground the CSEL signal on one of the IDE cable connectors. For example, when one of the drives is connected to the grounded CSEL conductor, it configures itself as the Master. When the second drive is connected to the other connector, on which CSEL is not grounded, it becomes the slave. This eliminates the need for unique jumpering configurations between the Master and Slave drives.

Cache
High-speed RAM used as a buffer between the CPU and a hard drive. The cache retains recently accessed information to speed up subsequent accesses to the same data. When data is read from or written to disk, a copy is saved in the cache, along with the associated disk address. The cache monitors the addresses of subsequent read operations to see if the required data is already in the cache. If it is, the drive returns the data immediately. If it is not in the cache, then it is fetched from the disk and saved in the cache.

Capacity
The amount of information, measured in bytes, that can be stored on a hard drive. Also known as storage capacity.

Clean Room
An environmentally controlled, dust-free, assembly or repair facility in which hard drives are assembled or opened for internal servicing.

Cluster
A cluster is defined as an allocation unit. At least one cluster is allocated to each file, regardless of the file's size, that is stored in the DOS environment. The cluster size increases with the partition size determined during formatting. With a 1024 MB partition, the cluster size is 32 KB. Each file stored consumes 32 KB of storage space, no matter how small the file. Create multiple, smaller partitions to avoid wasting space on small files. (This definition applies to FAT16).

CMOS Setup
A program supplied in most systems that allows you to configure internal and external devices.

Cylinder
The cylindrical surface formed by identical track numbers on vertically stacked disks.

Cylinder, Head, Sector (CHS) Addressing
A method of referencing the sectors on a drive as a collection of unique cylinder, head and sector addresses. Each block on the drive will have a unique cylinder, head and sector address.

D
Database
A collection of data stored on a computer system medium, such as a hard drive, CD-ROM, etc., that can be used for more than one purpose.

Dedicated Landing Zone
The designated radial zone of the disk, usually at the inner portion of the disk, where the heads are stored to avoid contact with the data cylinders when power to the drive is off.

Defect Free
A term used to describe recording surfaces that have no detectable defects.

Disk
A rigid platter, usually constructed of aluminum or mylar, with a magnetic surface that allows the recording of data, that is stored inside the drive.

Disk Controller
The chip or circuit that controls the transfer of data between the disk and buffer. (See also disk drive controller and interface controller).

Disk Drive Controller
The hard disk drive controller electronics which include the disk controller and the interface controller. (See also disk controller and interface controller.)

Disk Transfer Rate
Speed at which data transfers to and from the disk media (actual disk platter); a function of the recording frequency. Typical units are bits per second (BPS), or bytes per second. Hard drives have an increasing range of disk transfer rates from the inner diameter to the outer diameter of the disk.

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